What do human worms look like and how to get rid of them?

The symptoms of worms in humans cannot always be noticed in time. Worm infestation is most often associated with symptoms similar to other diseases, such as allergies or indigestion. Helminths are parasites in various parts of the human body. An infected person may treat liver failure, a chronic cold, or dermatosis without knowing the true cause of the ill health.

What are helminths

Worms in humans are parasitic worms of various sizes. They can enter the human body through the mouth, nasal passages, eyes, urethra or anus. Most often, parasites live in the intestines, attached to its walls with suction cups, tentacles or special teeth. Parasites can live in the tissues of the lungs and brain, the lining of the respiratory tract, muscles, liver and gall bladder.

Worms that live in human intestines

Worms feed on substances that enter the blood from the intestines, red blood cells and tissue fluids.

Classification of helminthiasis: types of worms in humans

Different types of helminths can parasitize the human body. Medical helminthology divides them into groups, taking into account the peculiarities of the shape of the body:

  • Round (nematodes)- holistic form in the form of a lemon, thread, barrel or spindle. The head and tail of nematodes are slightly pointed. The oral device is three-layered. The parasites move freely in soil, fresh water and sea water. The human body contains roundworms (which cause enterobiasis), roundworms, hookworms, and trichinella, which are considered intestinal parasites. Guinea worms - these roundworms spread through the tissue under the skin.
  • Tape (cestodes). These include the following types of parasites: cattle, pig, dwarf tapeworm, broad tapeworm. Their bodies resemble finely segmented ribbons that can reach 10 meters or more in length. The anterior part of the parasitic worms is equipped with suction discs and hooks, which attach them to the intestinal wall. Echinococcus have a complex attachment system - 4 hooks surrounded by two rows of hooks.
  • Trematodes (flukes)— this type of worm is characterized by specific habitats in the body: the gall bladder, the bile ducts. The representatives of the class of flukes are the Siberian fluke (4-13 mm), the fasciola (3-7 cm long).
Infection with worms leads to blood poisoning with toxins

The vital activity of helminths interferes with the normal functioning of the human body. The parasites poison the blood with toxins that cause dizziness, itchy skin, coughing and a bad night's sleep.

How can you get infected with helminths?

Everyone should know why worms appear in humans and where they live in the body:

  • Nematodes and flatworms enter the body with dirty hands, eating unwashed vegetables and drinking dirty water. Habitat: intestines.
  • Trichinella, cattle, pig tapeworm - infection occurs when eating thermally poorly processed meat (beef, pork). Location: intestine.
  • Opisthorchis, broad tapeworm (a class of trematodes or tapeworms). People can become infected by eating raw, poorly salted or poorly cooked fish. In fish, the parasite larvae live in the fat layer and muscles. In humans, they settle in the liver and gall bladder.
  • Echinococcus, Siberian fluke, and fasciola are spread through contact with an infected dog, and less commonly, cats are the source of infection. Helminths can parasitize the human liver, lungs, kidneys and heart. They develop inside echinococcus cysts.

What do worms look like in human feces?

3-4 days after taking anthelmintic tablets, one can see dead roundworms in the stool. The length of these parasites living in the human body can reach 40 cm, their edges are sharp, and their bodies are white.

Fungal worms usually leave the body a few hours after consuming milk with garlic, too salty or spicy food. Small white worms (up to 12 mm long) with sharp edges are clearly visible in the feces and around the anus.

Large flatworms or tapeworms are almost impossible to see completely (their length is 3-10 m). After baiting, the worms come out of the body in rotten pieces.

Signs of the presence of worms in humans

In the case of helminthic infection, the symptoms of adults and children are usually similar to the manifestations of other diseases. This is due to the location of the worms (respiratory tract, liver, bile) and life process.

In the acute period

It is believed that the acute phase is asymptomatic. But in most cases, the first signs of worms are mild, and people ignore the parasitic disease. Less often, in an infected person, signs of helminthiasis appear in the body with fever, nausea and vomiting. The person feels weak and loses his appetite.

In chronic phase

Symptoms of chronic helminthiasis depend on the type, number and habitat of the worms.

Intestinal helminthiasis

Symptoms of worms in the intestine in adults:

  • deterioration of digestion;
  • pressing pain in the navel area;
  • bowel dysfunction;
  • loss of appetite;
  • weight loss;
  • pale skin;
  • bruises under the eyes;
  • anal itching.
Abdominal pain is a common accompaniment of parasites in the intestines.

Gastrointestinal diseases can cause intestinal obstruction. The pathological condition manifests itself in paroxysmal abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting in the presence of fecal odor.

Extraintestinal helminthiasis

The main signs of infection with liver, gallstone and lung helminths:

  • constant fatigue;
  • nervous breakdown;
  • paroxysmal pain in the epigastric region;
  • reduced performance;
  • foul-smelling, greasy stools (steatorrhea);
  • hives, skin itching;
  • chest pain;
  • chronic dry cough;
  • change in skin color.

Extraintestinal parasites (giardia, opisthorchis, fasciola) can cause not only headaches or skin diseases, but also depression. Typically, a pathological condition occurs when skin allergy symptoms do not go away for a long time (itching, dry skin, rashes), or they reappear after treatment.

Detection of worms: diagnosis of helminthic infections

To diagnose helminths, feces are collected on worm eggs. But the analysis does not always show a positive result in the presence of parasites. First, not all types of worms are defined in this way. Second, the time of submitting the stool for analysis does not necessarily coincide with the time of parasite reproduction. The repetition of worm eggs occurs after 2-3 days. If the result is negative in the presence of symptoms, the following test methods may be prescribed:

  • Blood analysis- increased level of eosinophilic leukocytes and low hemoglobin indicate an infection caused by worms.
  • Duodenal sound- helps identify opisthorchiasis, giardiasis and other extraintestinal worms in humans by examining duodenal secretions.
  • Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and other parts of the human body— the gastrointestinal tract, liver, gall bladder, its ducts, pancreas, muscles, brain, and lungs are examined for the presence of pathological changes (seals, cysts, nodules, blockages) characteristic of the life of worms.
  • Chest X-ray- performed in case of suspicion of lung parasites (detection of roundworms, echinococcus, tapeworm larvae).
  • CT scan- to detect worms in the human brain, eyes and lungs.
  • Capsule endoscopy— to identify tapeworms.
  • ELISA— shows antibodies against most known parasites in the blood.

An immunological test is prescribed to assess the severity of body damage caused by worms. It helps identify weaknesses in the human immune system. After that, complex therapy of the pathological condition is prescribed.

How to get rid of worms quickly and effectively

It is better to learn how to remove helminths from the human body at an appointment with a parasitologist. Treatment of worms without medical advice can lead to poisoning and liver dysfunction.

Diet and hygiene features

Treatment of helminthiasis in adults and children should be accompanied by a diet that helps to quickly remove worms and cleanse the body of toxins. Products that contribute to the vital activity of parasites or poison the body should be excluded from the menu:

  • meat, lard;
  • all types of sweets;
  • fresh milk;
  • bakery products;
  • wheat porridge, pasta;
  • coffee, alcohol.
Adhering to the diet helps to get rid of worms in the body

The daily diet should include a salad of fresh carrots, fermented milk products with probiotics, eggs, freshly prepared vegetable juices, dishes made from potatoes, vegetables and mushrooms. The duration of the diet during the treatment of worms is determined by the doctor.

Hygiene procedures for helminthic infections include frequent and thorough hand washing with soap. The procedure should be performed before meals, after visiting the toilet and when returning from the street. Bed linen is changed 2-3 times a week. Be sure to iron after washing. Always take a clean towel after bathing.


Worms are treated in adults and children with the following drugs:

  • Broad-spectrum benzimidazole-type anthelmintic drug - effective against nematodes and trematodes. Contraindicated for children under 2 years old, prescribed with caution to pregnant and lactating women. The dosage and frequency of the drug depends on the type of worms. In case of roundworms and mixed infections, 1 tablet is prescribed. 2 times a day for three days. Treatment of enterobiasis is carried out for three consecutive days, taking 1 tablet per day. The course is repeated after 21 days. Echinococcus is eliminated in adults by increasing the dose of the drug: the first 3 days - 500 mg in the morning and evening, the next three days - 500 mg three times a day until complete recovery from the parasites. The duration of treatment for echinococcosis is determined by the doctor (4-6 weeks).
  • A broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug from the group of pyrazinoquinolines. Contraindicated for children under 4 years of age and pregnant women (1st trimester). Effective against muscle/tissue worms. Urogenital schistosomiasis (worms live in the blood vessels near the bladder), intestinal and abdominal treatment is carried out with a single dose (40 mg/10 kg). In severe forms of parasitic vascular pathology, tablets should be taken three times a day (every 6 hours) in the amount of 20-25 mg / 10 kg.
  • A broad-spectrum drug from the group of benzimidazoles. It cannot be prescribed for children under 2 years of age, pregnant or lactating women. A dose of 400 mg/day for adults and 60 mg/10 kg for children is prescribed for intestinal helminthiasis. For parasites in the brain, adults 800 mg / day, children - 15 mg / kg, the duration of treatment is 8-30 days.

Anthelmintic drugs are toxic. It is not prescribed for people with liver failure, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.

Traditional methods

How to cure worms with home remedies:

  • Grind the linseed (1 tablespoon). Pour the powder into 0. 5 liters of cold water. Bring the mixture to a boil, cook over low heat, covered, for 20 minutes. Drink 100 ml in the morning and evening on an empty stomach for 10 consecutive days. The recipe helps against almost all parasites that can live in the human body - roundworms, tapeworms, Giardia.
  • Grind 300 g of dried but not roasted pumpkin seeds. Add enough warm boiled water to the powder to make a paste. Add a large spoonful of honey. Consume the entire mixture on an empty stomach. After 4 hours, take a laxative. The recipe is effective against intestinal helminths in humans.
Doctors warn of a possible allergy to pumpkin seeds

Pumpkin seeds are an allergenic product, so skin itching may occur during treatment against worms. An anti-allergen pill will help you cope with it.

Which parasites can only be removed surgically?

Surgical treatment of helminthiasis requires the following conditions:

  • Intestinal obstruction - the pathological condition is caused by roundworms, tapeworms, worms and other worms.
  • Perforation of the intestinal wall - the bovine tapeworm makes a hole and exits into the human abdominal cavity.
  • Parasitic cholecystitis with subsequent necrosis of the pancreas is obstruction of the bile duct by a tapeworm.

Most often, surgical intervention is used in echinococcosis. Parasitic cysts in the lungs, kidneys, liver, and spleen of an infected person are removed by laparotomy or laparoscopy.

How dangerous is helminthic infection for the body?

If not treated, the pathology takes a chronic form. The most dangerous thing that can happen in the body during the severe form of the disease is the destruction of the tissues of the internal organs, suffocation and the development of blindness.

How to protect yourself from infection

Prevention of helminthic infection in the body requires that the person:

  • Carefully observe the rules of personal hygiene.
  • Treat pets for parasites right away.
  • Heat the fish for 60 minutes and the meat for 2-3 hours.

In people with strong immunity, worm eggs are neutralized, so the immune system must be constantly strengthened. For this, it is enough to lead a healthy lifestyle and regularly take vitamin and mineral complexes.